Anatomy of the foot:

The foot is one of the most complex parts of the body, consisting of 26 bones connected by numerous joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The foot is susceptible to many stresses. Foot pain and problems can cause pain, inflammation, or injury, resulting in limited movement and mobility.

Different types of foot problems

Foot pain is often caused by improper foot function. Improperly fitted shoes can worsen and, in some cases, cause foot problems. Shoes that fit properly and give good arch support can prevent irritation to the foot joints and skin. There are many types of foot problems that affect the heels, toes, nerves, tendons, ligaments, and joints of the foot.
The symptoms of foot problems may resemble other medical conditions and problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.

Heel spurs

A heel spur is a bone growth on the heel bone, particularly on the underside forepart of the heel bone where the bone connects to the plantar fascia. If the plantar fascia, a long band of connecting tissue running from the heel to the ball of the foot, is over-stretched, it can cause a bone growth, or spur, to develop. This connective tissue holds the arch together and acts as a shock absorber during activity. The pain results from the stress and inflammation of the plantar fascia pulling on the bone. Sometimes, rest will relieve heel spurs. Other treatment options may include:

    • wearing footwear (to increase bone and joint support)
    • steroid injections (to help relieve inflammation)
    • surgery (may be considered with a prolonged condition)


Corns are yellowish, callus growths that develop on top of the toes. Corns develop because of abuse or stress. Often, a corn develops where a toe rubs against a shoe or another toe. Corns can cause extreme discomfort and pain. Treatment may include:
applying pads around the corn area
wearing larger shoes to comfortably fit your foot without rubbing
To avoid corn development, always purchase footwear that fits properly.


A bunion is a protrusion of bone or tissue around a joint. Bunions may occur at the base of the great toe or at the base of the little toe, and often occur when the joint is stressed over a period of time. Women are more frequently affected because they may wear tight, pointed, and confining shoes. Bunions can also be a result of arthritis which often affects the big toe joint.
Treatment of bunions may vary depending on the pain and deformity. Treatment may include:

    • wearing comfortable, well-fitting footwear (particularly shoes that conform to the shape of the foot and do not cause pressure areas)
    • surgery (for pain, not for cosmetic purposes)
    • applying pads to the affected area

Morton's neuroma

Morton’s neuroma is a build-up of benign (non-cancerous) tissue in the nerves running between the long bones of the foot. Morton’s neuroma occurs when two bones rub together and squeeze the nerve between them. Most often, neuromas develop between the bones leading to the third and fourth toes. Morton’s neuroma often causes swelling, tenderness, and pain. If the pain becomes severe, it may cause tingling, numbness, and burning in the toes. It usually occurs after standing or walking for a long period of time. Treatment for this condition may involve rest and/or a change in footwear that does not restrict the foot. If the problem persists, cortisone injections and/or surgery may be considered.


    A hammertoe is a condition in which the toe buckles, causing the middle joint of the affected toe to poke out. This condition is often aggravated by tight-fitting shoes that put pressure on the hammertoe. Often a corn develops at this site. Treatment for hammertoes may include:

    • applying a toe pad specially positioned over the bony protrusion
    • changing your footwear to accommodate the deformed toe
    • surgical removal

Ankle Sprain

    An ankle sprain is an injury to the foot’s ligaments in the ankle. Ligaments are tough bands of elastic tissue that connect bones to each other. An ankle sprain can occur when the ankle rolls outward (with the sole of the foot facing the other foot). Causes of an ankle sprain may include weak muscles, loose ligaments, or shoes with spiked heels. The symptoms of a sprain depend of the severity of the injury – how much the ligaments have stretched or torn. Symptoms may include swelling, pain, and bruising. Treatment will depend on the severity of the sprain, but may include:

    • wrapping the ankle with elastic bandage or tape
    • ice pack application (to reduce inflammation)
    • elevating the ankle
    • gradual return to walking and exercise
    • a walking cast (for moderate sprains)
    • surgery (for severe sprains)
    • physical therapy

Foot Fracture

    With 38 bones in a single foot, almost any of them can be broken. Many fractures do not require surgery, or even a cast, as they will heal on their own with some support. When a foot is fractured, the site of the fracture usually is painful and swollen. The site of the fracture will determine the course of treatment, if necessary, including the following:

    • ankle joint fractures
    • These fractures may be serious and require immediate medical attention. Ankle fractures usually require a cast, and some may require surgery if the bones are too separated or misaligned.
    • metatarsal bone fractures
    • Fractures of the metatarsal bones, located in the middle of the foot, often do not require a cast. A stiff-soled shoe may be all that is needed for support as the foot heals. Sometimes, surgery is needed to correct misaligned bones or fractured segments.
    • sesamoid bone fractures
    • The sesamoid bones are two small, round bones at the end of the metatarsal bone of the big toe. Usually, padded soles can help relieve pain. However, sometimes, the sesamoid bone may have to be surgically removed.
    • toe fractures
    • Fractures of the middle toes can heal without a cast. Fractures of the big toe or little toe may require a cast and/or surgery.

Foot Pain

    Foot pain can be debilitating to an active lifestyle. Foot pain can have many sources, from fractures and sprains to nerve damage. Listed below are three common areas of pain in the foot and their causes:

Pain in the ball of the foot

Pain in the ball of the foot, located on the bottom of the foot behind the toes, may be caused by nerve or joint damage in that area. In addition, a benign (non-cancerous) growth, such as Morton’s neuroma, may cause the pain. Corticosteroid injections and wearing supportive shoe inserts may help relieve the pain. Sometimes, surgery is necessary.
plantar fasciitis
Plantar fasciitis is characterized by severe pain in the heel of the foot, especially when standing up after resting. The condition is due to an overuse injury of the sole surface (plantar) of the foot and results in inflammation of the fascia, a tough, fibrous band of tissue that connects the heel bone to the base of the toes.
Plantar fasciitis is more common in women, people who are overweight, people with occupations that require a lot of walking or standing on hard surfaces, people with flat feet, and people with high arches. Walking or running, especially with tight calf muscles, may also cause the condition.

Treatment may include:

    • rest
    • ice pack applications
    • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications
    • stretching exercises of the Achilles tendons and plantar fascia

Achilles tendon injury

    The Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the human body. However, this tendon is also the most common site of rupture or tendonitis, an inflammation of the tendon due to overuse.

    Achilles tendonitis is caused by overuse of the tendon and calf muscles. Symptoms may include mild pain after exercise that worsens gradually, stiffness that disappears after the tendon warms up, and swelling. Treatment may include:

    • rest
    • nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications
    • supportive devices and/or bandages for the muscle and tendon
    • stretching
    • massage
    • ultrasound
    • strengthening exercises
    • surgery