THE KNEE JOINT

The knee joint, which appears like a simple hinge-joint, is one of the most complex joint. Moreover, the knee is more likely to be injured than is any other joint in the body.

Knee joint must be regarded as consisting of three articulations in one: two condyloid joints, one between each condyle of the femur and the corresponding meniscus and condyle of the tibia; and a third between the patella and the femur, partly arthrodial, but not completely so, since the articular surfaces are not mutually adapted to each other, so that the movement is not a simple gliding one.

We tend to ignore our knees until something happens to them that causes pain. If we take good care of our knees now, before there is a problem, we can really help ourselves. In addition, if some problems with the knees develop, an exercise program can be extremely beneficial. To understand the functions, conditions, surgeries & procedures of the knee better, we have included an interactive animated presentation.

Arthritis of the Knee joint

The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint, but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage.

Arthroscopy of the knee joint

Arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an arthroscope is inserted into a joint. Arthroscopy is a term that comes from two Greek words, arthro-, meaning joint, and -skopein, meaning to examine. The benefits of arthroscopy involve smaller incisions, faster healing, a more rapid recovery, and less scarring. Arthroscopic surgical procedures are often performed on an outpatient basis and the patient is able to return home on the same day.

Total Knee Replacement (TKR).

A total knee replacement (TKR) or total knee arthroplasty is a surgery that resurfaces an arthritic knee joint with an artificial metal or plastic replacement parts called the ‘prostheses’.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament ACL reconstruction

The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the major stabilizing ligaments in the knee. It is a strong rope like structure located in the centre of the knee running from the femur to the tibia. When this ligament tears unfortunately it doesn’t heal and often leads to the feeling of instability in the knee.

ACL reconstruction is a commonly performed surgical procedure and with recent advances in arthroscopic surgery can now be performed with minimal incisions and low complication rates.

ACL Reconstruction (Hamstring tendon)

Uni condylar (Unicompartmental) knee replacement.

This simply means that only a part of the knee joint is replaced through a smaller incision than would normally be used for a total knee replacement. The knee joint is made up of 3 compartments, the patellofemoral and medial and lateral compartments between the femur and tibia (i.e. the long bones of the leg). Often only one of these compartments wears out, usually the medial one. If you have symptoms and X-ray findings suggestive of this then you may be suitable for this procedure.

Revision knee replacement.

This means that part or all of your previous knee replacement needs to be revised. This operation varies from very minor adjustments to massive operations replacing significant amounts of bone and hence is difficult to describe in full.

Minimally Invasive Surgery

Total Hip Replacement THR and Total Knee Replacement THR are very successful surgical treatment for arthritis of the hip and knee respectively. Over the years hip replacement surgery can be done through much smaller incisions than the usual twenty-five to thirty centimeter incision that most surgeons use.

The advantages of Minimally Invasive Surgery:

    • Less tissue trauma – muscles and tendons are avoided or separated, not cut
    • Faster and less painful rehabilitation
    • Smaller incisions and less scarring – two incisions of 1½ to 2 inches each, rather than one 10- to 12-inch incision
    • Shorter hospital stay – 1-2 days (vs. 3-5 days); some patients go home in less than 24 hours
    • Reduced blood loss and less need for pre-surgery blood donation
    • Faster return to work and daily activities